The stereotype of the ‘African’ child

Posted 21 Jun 2010 — by davidc_7IF
Category Conventional imagery

Images of impoverished children are regularly associated with stories about both ‘Africa’ and famine, even if the issue of famine in question is not specifically or only related to ‘Africa’.

In this recent business story (June 2010) about the relationship between the demand for biofuels and rising food prices, a naked child with distended belly represents the threat for famine. (Interestingly, the on-line version of the story was illustrated with a photograph of Somali’s protesting rising prices in 2008).

A stereotype is something preconceived or oversimplified that is constantly repeated without change. Stereotypes involve icons, which are figures that represent events or issues. Icons have a sacred history but the attention they attract as objects of our gaze can produce a range of affects depending on time and place. The photographic deployment of particular icons (children) via an established aesthetic to represent famine is a clear example of stereotypes at work.

Here is another stereotypical photo from The Guardian on 30 September 2009:

Guardian_300909_child

This photograph was used to illustrate a story headlined “By 2050, 25m more children will go hungry as climate change leads to food crisis.

The caption reads: “A malnourished boy at a feeding centre in Ethiopia. Sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia will be most vulnerable to food shortages, the IFPRI report found. Photograph: Jose Cendon/AFP/Getty Images.”

Ethiopia and the recurring famine: same story, same pictures?

Posted 23 May 2010 — by davidc_7IF
Category Conventional imagery

The 1984 famine in Ethiopia that led to the Live Aid phenomenon was a watershed for contemporary understandings of food crises, especially in the UK. Going back through my files the periodic coverage of food crises in Ethiopia that references the 1984 pictures (directly or indirectly) is prominent.

Mohamed Amin and Michael Buerk, Korem, Ethiopia, 1984

Consider some of the more recent examples:

  • In July 2008 Oxfam warned that spiralling food prices were helping produce a food crisis, and worked with photojournalist Nick Danziger to provide visual evidence. Danziger’s photos appeared in The Guardian, were used by the Daily Mirror for its story on “A Catastrophe in the Making” (25 July 2008, p.4, which connected the story back to the 1984 famine), and were broadcast in a short ITV news report that interviewed the photographer. Oxfam used them to produce a short video setting the crisis in context, but Jim Johnson offered a careful critique of the Danziger pictures.
  • In October 2009 the BBC broadcast reports about a new food crisis in Ethiopia. Mike Wooldridge’s video report made a direct reference back to the 1984 famine, including images from that crisis. In addition, there were links on the right of the news page to two 1984 videos — including the famous Michael Buerk/Mohammed Amin TV report from October 1984 which got the Live Aid/Band Aid ball rolling.

This repetition of story and imagery must lead us to ask two questions. First, if food crises are endemic, doesn’t that mean we are dealing with the product of an economic and political system rather than failure attributable to natural circumstances? Second, how could photographic visualizations move away from the legacy of 1984 and begin to portray the endemic and systematic nature of food crises, while still recording the human devastation of these crises?

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